(Acta Archaeologica Sinica)
No. 1, 2017
Wan Chenchen et al.,
The Discovery, Survey and Study of the Dadong Site in Helong, jilin……… (1)
The Examination on the Arrangements of the Zuan-zao on the Tortoise Plastrons of the Oracle Bones of the Bin Group Unearthed from YH127 at Yinxu ……………………………………………………………………………… (25)
The Arrangements of the Chime Bells of the Zhou Dynasty in Burials and in Performance Occasions…………………………………………………………………………… (49)
Wang Yu ang Xie Yichen,
On the Cicada-shaped Mouthpieces of the Han Dynasty …………………… (73)
The Archaeological Study on the Burials of the 6th Century in the Ye City Area…………………………………………………………………………………( 97)
Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology,
The Shell Burials of the Han Dynasty in Bayuquan District, Yingkou City, Liaoning …………………………………………………………………………(119)
THE DISCOVERY, SURVEY AND STUDY OF THE DADONG SITE IN HELONG
Dadong Site, which is located in the northeast of the Dadong Village in Chongshan Town, Helong City, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin Province, is named after its location. From the end of August and the early September 2007, the joint Shirengou Archaeological Team organized by the Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology, Jilin University, Jilin Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Helong Municipal Museum conducted survey to this site. The site was about 2000 m from east to west and 500 m from north to south, covering an area of over 100 ha. Lithic product is the only artifact found in this site, 5681 pieces recovered in total. Most of the stone implements are small-sized ones, microliths and mid-sized ones show a few and large-sized ones are rare. The types of the stone implements are very rich, including cores, flakes, blades, microblades, chunks and tools. The tools consist of that of Category 2 (utilized flakes) and Category 3 (retouched practical tools). The tool assemblage is mainly scraper and burin, in addition to which are the points, notches, backed knives, boring tools and stone arrowheads. Obsidian of high quality is the prevailing raw material, followed by very few samples of flint, basalt, hornfels, pyroclastic rock, rhyolite and breccia. This site has a huge scale and rich obsidian products, both of which made it a significant discovery in the history of the Paleolithic Archaeology in Northeast China. This paper studied and discussed the lithic product fetched in the survey of the year 2007 in the aspects of stone implement types, tool assemblages, the quarrying and utilization of the raw materials, flaking technique, tool retouching technique, nature of the site and the comparison with the nearby sites, and so on with the methods of mathematical statistics and chart graph analysis, which revealed that the Dadong Site in Helong belonged to the typical microblade industry in Northeast China represented by the lithic blade and microblade techniques. This site had some common elements with some Upper Paleolithic sites in North China, southern Primorsky Krai of Russia, Korean Peninsula and Hokkaido of Japan, so it is an important site for understanding the Upper Paleolithic Age of the Changbai Mountains area even the entire Northeast Asia.
THE EXAMINATION ON THE ARRANGEMENTS OF THE ZUAN-ZAO ON THE TORTOISE PLASTRONS OF THE ORACLE BONES OF THE BIN GROUP UNEARTHED FROM YH127 AT YINXU
This paper is the sorting and studying of the arrangements of the zuan-zao (drilled round holes and chiseled lenticular holes) on the tortoise plastrons of the divination inscriptions of the Bin Group unearthed from the ash pit YH127 at Yinxu Site in Anyang. This paper sorted the zuan-zao on these tortoise plastrons into two types, namely the sparse type and the dense type. Moreover, the sparse type can again be classified into the single-ring sparse type and multiple-ring sparse type. The single-ring sparse type consists of two subtypes, which are the subtype without zuan-zao on the epiplastron and entoplastron and that with zuan-zao applied on the epiplastron and entoplastron. The dense type can again be classified into the subtype with two lines of zuan-zao on the left and right sides of the medial suture of the plastron respectively and that with three or more lines of zuan-zao on the left and right sides of the medial suture of the plastron respectively. In addition, the type of the coexistence of the arrangements of zuan-zao of the sparse type and dense type is also seen. These different types of arrangements of zuan-zao are related to some divination situations. The zuan-zao were mostly placed beforehand, while a few of that on the plastrons of the typical Bin Group of the divination inscriptions were placed offhand. The main element influencing the zuan-zao numbers was the arrangement pattern of the zuan-zao, in the dense type of which the number of the zuan-zao was directly proportional to the size of the plastron. Sets of divination inscriptions were mainly composed of the plastrons of the single-ring and multiple-ring sparse types without zuan-zao on the epiplastrons and entoplastrons. The nature of the sets of divination inscriptions was to show the attribution of the divination; when they were executed on larger plastrons and only one record was carved on one piece of plastron, this function was stylized and weakened. The phenomena of inscriptions straddling the cracks had three types, which are the inscriptions straddling the cracks of the inscriptions of the two sides, the inscriptions straddling the cracks of the inscriptions of the reverse face and the inscriptions straddling their own cracks; the straddling more frequently occurred on the plastrons with the arrangement of the dense type with three or more lines of zuan-zao on the left and right sides of the medial suture of the plastron respectively, which was the result of the densely arranged zuan-zao in the limited carving space. The crack number might be carved before carving the record, one time of burning and one time of carving, or one group of burning and one group of carving were applied alternatively; if the record was straddling its own crack, the crack number might be carved after the completion of the record, or be rearranged or modified after that. The arrangements of the zuan-zao on the tortoise plastrons of the divination inscriptions of the Bin Group unearthed from YH127 reflected the diversification of the divination forms during the period from the later stage of the middle phase to the late phase of the reign of King Wu Ding of the Shang Dynasty.
of the Zhou and Xirong Cultures.arly Spring-and-Autumn Period. Considering its cultural composition, we will realize that it has three main sources, namely the Shang, Zhou and Xirong (Western Barbarian) Cultures. The elements derived from the Shang Culture include the setting of waist pits and the custom of burying dogs in graves, the using of human victim and human sacrifice, the burial forms of chariots and horses, the Shang-style pottery wares and the tradition of constructing huge-scale mausoleums. These elements reflect that the Qin people initially came from the east and had strong ties with the Shang Dynasty and were deeply influenced by the Shang Culture, and belonged to the Yin Yimin (adherents of the downfallen Shang Dynasty) in the broader sense. The elements absorbed from the Zhou Culture include the architectural types of the ancestral temples and palaces, the execution of the ritual vessel using system, the musical instrument suspension system, the Zhou-style pottery wares and the writing script features. These elements show that the Qin people learned ritual and musical culture of the Western Zhou Dynasty, which had a great realistic political significance
THE ARRANGEMENTS OF THE CHIME BELLS OF THE ZHOU DYNASTY IN BURIALS AND IN PERFORMANCE OCCASIONS
The researches of this paper revealed that the chime bells seen in the burials of the Zhou Dynasty were not arranged as their actual positions and assemblages in the performance occasions, but were selected and displayed according to the given burial institutions and the melodies and intervals of the music, and therefore the display of the chime bells in the burials were not the reappearance of their counterparts in the real life. The available archaeological materials showed that this burial institution emerged first in the late Western Zhou Dynasty, and developed into a regulated hierarchy in the mid Spring-and-Autumn Period: the feudal lords were accompanied by three arrays of chime bells in the graves, the highest-ranking nobles and senior ministers were accompanied by two arrays of chime bells and the other aristocrats and officials were accompanied by one array. However, no matter how many arrays, they were only arranged between two rack stands, and the common elites were seldom accompanied by musical bells. Since the mid Warring-States Period, this institution declined and finally vanished. The musical bell suspension rules recorded in Zhouli (Rites of Zhou) and Yili (Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial) must have really existed, but they were not demonstrated by the bell racks arranged in L-shaped plan in the graves. The use of the bell racks in L-shaped plan was closely related to the sizes of the grave spaces and the bells, which was a special displaying form of the chime bells as grave goods. This reflected from an aspect that the funeral views of the high-ranking nobles and officials were deeply influenced by the surrounding of the bronze and stone ritual vessels and instruments in the real life.
ON THE CICADA-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES OF THE HAN DYNASTY
Wang Yu and Xie Yichen
The cicada-shaped mouthpieces used for burial were mostly made of jade, but some of them were also made of bone, shell, even glass and other materials to simulate the jade texture. The materials available to date show that the cicada-shaped mouthpiece in the strict sense appeared first in the Eastern Zhou Period, the relationship of which with the new cicada-shaped mouthpiece which burst in the early Western Han Dynasty is still waiting for further research. Since the mid to the late Western Han, the cicada-shaped mouthpiece has been popular in the whole empire, and the main places where it is concentrated to be unearthed are the eastern region centered by Xuzhou and Yangzhou, the Guanzhong region centered by Xi'an, and Henan and northern Hubei; in the Eastern Han, Luoyang became another center. All of the new forms and new styles of the cicada-shaped mouthpieces were created in these centers and then spread to other regions. At the very beginning, the cicada-shaped mouthpiece was used as one of the “nine orifice plugs” in the burial jades, and most of them had the functions of both a mouthpiece and a mouth plug. Since the mid to the late Western Han Dynasty, cicada-shaped mouthpiece became the mainstream of the mouthpieces for the dead, and formed a close assemblage with the pig-shaped jade handgrip as the mainstream of the hand-held burial jades for the dead. Because the cicada-shaped mouthpiece was not a component of the funeral ritual system of the Han Dynasty, it did not have close association with the high-ranking burial jades, such as the jade burial suit sewn with golden wires, etc. It does not have a hierarchical meaning whether the mouthpiece is made into the shape of a cicada or not, and the difference on the rank and position of the dead was shown by the materials of which the mouthpiece was made. As a popular social custom, to make mouthpiece into the shape of a cicada was related to the superstitious beliefs of the people in jade and cicada. Along with the gradual abolishment of these superstitious beliefs in the Eastern Han Dynasty, the cicada-shaped mouthpiece declined and disappeared with the downfall of the Han Dynasty.
THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE BURIALS OF THE 6TH CENTURY IN THE YE CITY AREA
Around the 6th century AD, the Ye City area experienced the degradation from the metropolitan area of the late Northern Dynasties Period to the common prefecture of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. With methods of archaeological typology, this paper makes a comprehensive analytical research on the data of about 160 burials in this time span and this area with close observation to the temporal and spatial evolution rules of these burials and the reasons of these evolutions. This paper makes typological analyses to the burial types, assemblages of grave goods and the types and styles of the typical grave goods, based on which these burials are divided into three phases, namely the Eastern Wei to the early Northern Qi Dynasties, the mid and late Northern Qi Dynasty, and the Northern Zhou and Sui Dynasties. The analyses reveal that 1. The spatial changes of the distribution of the burials in the Ye City area, bordered by 577 AD, were closely related to the rise and fall of the Ye City and Xiangzhou Prefecture seat. The burials before 577 AD were distributed closer to the Ye City, concentratedly on the ridges and high slopes between the Zhang River in the south and the Fuyang River in the north, and between the Zhang River in the north and Huan River in the south; the burial areas after 577 AD were moved southward, and concentrated on the two banks of the Huan River to the northwest of the present-day old city of Anyang. 2. The burial types of the late Northern Dynasties Period sharply differ from that of the Sui Dynasty; the large-sized mounded tombs and mural tombs generally disappeared since the Sui Dynasty, but the plan types of the burials of the Sui Dynasty succeeded that of the Northern Dynasties. 3. The assemblages of the grave goods in the burials of the Eastern Wei and Northern Qi Dynasties and the Sui Dynasty in the Ye City area had clear succession relationship, but the proportions of the categories of the grave goods in the assemblages and the types of the grave goods had obvious changes along with the time. 4. Unquestionably, the funeral systems of the Sui and Tang Dynasties were the comprehensive integration of the funeral systems of the Southern Dynasties, Eastern Wei-Northern Qi and Western Wei-Northern Zhou Dynasties, and that of the Eastern Wei and Northern Qi Dynasties shown in the burials in the Ye City area was one of the mainly sources of the funeral systems of the Sui and Tang Dynasties.
THE SHELL BURIALS OF THE HAN DYNASTY IN BAYUQUAN DISTRICT, YINGKOU CITY, LIAONING
Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
In August through November 2008, Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology conducted rescue excavation to the burials of the Han Dynasty found at the Tianrui Cement Works in Baoyuquan District, Yingkou City, Liaoning Province. The excavation recovered 38 burials of the Han Dynasty, 34 of which were shell-bedded and stacked burials yielding some artifacts with clear regional features and styles of the time. These shell burials had single burials, joint burials in the same grave and joint burials in separate graves, the occupants of which were mostly in extended supine position with the head to the west slightly by the north, the orientations of which were between 280° and 310°. The artifacts unearthed from these shell burials were made of pottery, stone, bronze, iron and so on, and pottery wares took the majority, the types of which were pots, jars, bo-bowls, lian-cosmetic cases, vessel lids, fu-cauldrons, stoves, zeng-steamers, water well models, etc., and the pot, jar and bo-bowl are the basic pottery ware assemblage. Some pottery wares bore color-painted designs; stone pendants are the unique artifacts, which are composed of turquoise beads, tubes and drops, or one or two kinds of them; bronzes were mainly finger rings, eardrops, bells, rings, belt hooks, coins and other tiny objects; iron objects included hoes, swords, knives, arrowheads, awls, tubes, belt hooks, etc. Animal skeletons were widely seen in these shell burials, the most typical case was a burial interred with one ox skull and four dog skulls. The burials in the entire cemetery were orderly arranged, showing that it was a large-scale public cemetery for the people of the middle and lower classes in the society at that time. The date of these shell burials was the mid to the late Western Han Dynasty, the terminus ad quem of which would be the transitional period between the Western and Eastern Han Dynasty, or down to the early Eastern Han Dynasty. The types, decors and assemblages of the grave goods showed clear regional features as well as remnants of the Yan Culture, which is significantly important for the study on the communication between the culture of the Central Plains and the aboriginal cultures of the northeastern area in the Pingguo District of Liaodong Commandery in the transitional period between the Western and Eastern Han Dynasty.