(Acta Archaeologica Sinica)
No. 3, 2017
Coming Back to Xiaxu -- Social Memory and the Emergence of Classics
The Burying Status of the Oracle Bones in the Pit H3 at the Huayuanzhuang Locus
On the Bronze Braziers of the Eastern Zhou Period through the Western Han
Dynasty ………………………………………………………………………… (337)
Cai Yan and Teng Mingyu,
The Making Technique of the Tile-ends in the Warring-States Period to the Early Han Dynasty and Relevant Issues ………………………………………………(357)
The Study on the Pictorial Brick Tombs of the Han Dynasty in Sichuan and Chongqing Areas ……………………………………………………………… (373)
Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS,
The Burials of the Zhou Dynasty at the Xiaosikong Locus South in Anyang,
Henan ………………………………………………………………………… (399)
COMING BACK TO XIAXU -- SOCIAL MEMORY AND THE EMERGENCE OF CLASSICS TRADITION
This paper tries to seek the transmission of social memory of early China at the convergence of archaeological and textual inquiries, and the date and motivations for the emergence of the classical tradition. By comparing the dynasty-founding narrative in Zhou historiography and the changing configuration of the political landscape seen through the settlement archaeological perspective, this paper argues that the political experimentation and social change unfolding since the late 3rd millennium BC contributed to the formation of the “Xiaxu (Ruins of Xia)” narrative in Zhou historical tradition. At the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the founders of the Zhou Dynasty reconstituted the regional society in the southern Shanxi and the Luoyang Basins by claiming the prehistoric legacy associated with major political centers in these two basins during the Longshan and Erlitou Ages. This political decision helped consolidate the Central Plains-based political landscape. The political and religious legacies from the Longshan society, therefore, became the primary representation for the overarching cultural order and shared value among Zhou states. This legacy was the source of the classical tradition in early China.
THE BURYING STATUS OF THE ORACLE BONES IN THE PIT H3 AT THE HUAYUANZHUANG LOCUS EAST
When double checking the excavation notes of the oracle bone pit H3 at the Huayuanzhuang Locus East and reviewing the burying status of the oracle bones and tortoise shells, the author of this paper found some noticeable phenomena. The oracle bones with relevant contents were mostly unearthed in relatively close places, and few of them were found farther away from each other. There were also some oracle bones with irrelevant contents buried closely, but most of them were found faraway from each other. Based on these statuses, the author makes some estimations: first, the oracle bones in H3 have been managed by specially assigned people; after the divination, these oracle bones were filed by content, and finally dumped into the pit and buried. During the dumping, the order of the oracle bones was disturbed, but many of them still kept their original distances. Second, because the shapes of the plastrons and carapaces were different, therefore even their inscriptions had relevant contents, they were still filed separately, so they were apart faraway from each other in the pit. Third, a diviner tended to use bones or shells of similar sizes when he was divining for the same event in the same day. The same phenomena were also seen in the H127 found in the thirteenth excavation and the H251 and H330 found in the fifteenth excavation, which might be a usual divination practice popular in the reign of King Wu Ding. Fourth, before burying, the managers of these oracle bones have reclassified some of the filed oracle bones, and they were arranged by size rather than contents, bound together and dumped into the pit. That is why so many oracle bones and shells of irrelevant contents but similar sizes were tightly piled together in the H3. Fifth, the tortoise shells used by the diviner named “Zi” were usually larger ones (28 to 30 cm in length). This was because that Zi was the leader with glorious position of the divination agency producing the oracle bones in H3; when he was personally conducting the divination, his subordinates intentionally chose larger shells for him to show their respects.
ON THE BRONZE BRAZIERS OF THE EASTERN ZHOU PERIOD THROUGH THE WESTERN HAN DYNASTY
Brazier is an important utensil for daily use. The bronze braziers of the Eastern Zhou Period to the Western Han Dynasty could be classified into single-layered, double-layered and multi-layered braziers, and the first and third types were more important. In the three types, the circular and rectangular ones took larger proportions, and were made into diversified forms; the oval ones took small proportion and had monotonous forms. The general trend of the developments of all of the three types were from simple to complex, which was that from a simple fuel container to the assemblage of particular food container, ash pan and handle, etc. In different developing stages, the forms and functions of the bronze braziers had somewhat differences. In the mid through late Spring-and-Autumn Period, the bronze braziers began to appear in the southern states, most of which had ring foot, square feet or very low bubble-shaped feet, and drop ring handles fixed symmetrically on the two sides of the brazier body; the functions of these braziers were mainly heating and grilling. In the Warring-States Period, braziers appeared popularly in both northern and southern China; most of them were single-layered ones with cabriole legs and chain-shaped handle. As that of the braziers in the mid and late Spring-and-Autumn Period, the decors of the bronze braziers of the southern system were much richer than that of the bronze braziers of the northern system. Their functions were still heating and grilling, and the double-layered ones might be used for frying and stir-frying. In the Qin and Han Dynasties, double- and triple-layered braziers appeared in large quantities, few of which were fixed with chain-shaped handles but many with bar-shaped handles, and they were usually unearthed with specially equipped food container -- an eared cup. The decors of the braziers of this period were mostly hollowed ones, which were barely different in the southern and northern systems. Their functions were mainly heating, grilling and flavoring chopped meat. Braziers had a position in the kitchenware system of early China, but they were not a main cooking vessel. In ancient China, the main cooking methods were steaming and boiling rather than frying and stir-frying which are popular at present.
THE MAKING TECHNIQUE OF THE TILE-ENDS IN THE WARRING-STATES PERIOD TO THE EARLY HAN DYNASTY AND RELEVANT ISSUES
Cai Yan and Teng Mingyu
Through the technical analyses to the bricks and tiles unearthed from the Yong City Site of the Qin State, the imperial villa of the Qin Dynasty in Suizhong, Liaoning, the Shouchun City (the last capital of the Chu State of the Warring-States Period) and the Minyue Royal City Site, this paper reveals the craftsmen management systems applied by the Qin and Han Empires in different regions within their territories, and the urban management systems reflected by them. This paper divides the brick and tile making techniques into different steps, and each step into different step types; according to different step type assemblages, the brick and tile making techniques of the Yong City and Suizhong are divided into stages, and the origins of the brick and tile craftsmen in Suizhong, Shouchun and Minyue Royal City are analyzed. Meanwhile, the systematic standardization and individual standardization of the brick and tile making techniques of these four sites are analyzed and compared with statistical methods, and further the similarities and differences of their production rules are discussed. Then, the origins and skills of the craftsmen and the production systems of these four sites are compared. The conclusions are that the craftsmen of the Yong City of the Qin State were from the central institutions, their craftsmanship was the most skillful and their production regulations were the most strict; the brick and tile making craftsmen in the imperial villa of the Qin Dynasty at Suizhong were the corvée laborers levied from the core area of the empire, their skill was the worst and their production management was the slackest; the Shouchun City had both local craftsmen and that from other places, the latter of which were not as skillful as the local craftsmen, but they brought in advanced production rules; the craftsmen of the Minyue Royal City were all locals, whose production management was the loosest. Finally, this paper points out that the urban management systems of the Qin and Han Empires in Shouchun City were relatively successful, but their urban management systems applied in Suizhong and Minyue Royal City were unsuccessful.
THE STUDY ON THE PICTORIAL BRICK TOMBS OF THE HAN DYNASTY IN SICHUAN AND CHONGQING AREAS
This paper made systematic research on the pictorial brick tombs of the Han Dynasty in Sichuan and Chongqing areas, including the structures and types of the tombs, the classification of the contents of the images on the pictorial bricks, the assemblages and motifs of the images, the making and circulation of the pictorial bricks, the artistic styles of the images, the distribution and zoning, dates and periodization, origin and development of the pictorial brick tombs, etc. The origin of the pictorial brick tombs of the Sichuan and Chongqing areas was the mural tombs of the Western Han Dynasty in the Central Plains, but they had unique local features. These pictorial brick tombs could be classified into decorative pictorial brick tombs and structural pictorial brick tombs, which could again be classified into different types. The themes of the pictorial bricks were mainly paradise scenes and ascending immortal, as well as the reproduction worshipping, evil exorcising, tomb quelling, auspicious wishing, etc., and the theme of the figures was the ascending immortal of the tomb occupants. Almost all of the pictorial bricks were made by molding; the images of the decorative bricks were usually made as bas-relief on curved surfaces, and that of the structural bricks were mainly made as raised lines. At that time, these pictorial bricks might have been molded and burned by professional workshops. The artistic expression form of the pictorial bricks of the Han Dynasty followed the realistic principle, and reflected the society and social lives of the Sichuan and Chongqing areas in the Han Dynasty from all of the aspects. Pictorial brick tombs were widely distributed in Sichuan and Chongqing areas, and could be divided into the western Sichuan zone and Chongqing zone. The flourishing period of the pictorial brick tombs was the Xin Dynasty (Wang Mang Interregnum) through the Shu Kingdom of the Three-Kingdoms Period, and could be dated into five phases.
THE BURIALS OF THE ZHOU DYNASTY AT THE XIAOSIKONG LOCUS SOUTH IN ANYANG, HENAN
Anyang Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
In the spring and summer of 2005 and autumn of 2007, the Anyang Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences conducted coring test and excavation at the southwest of the Xiaosikong Village, which recovered 116 burials of the Shang, Zhou, Song, Ming and Qing Dynasties. This report presents the materials of the 21 burials of the Western Zhou Dynasty and 46 burials of the Eastern Zhou Period. The stratigraphy of the cultural accumulation of the Xiaosikong Locus South is simple, and the openings of the burials of the Zhou Dynasty were all found underneath the cultivated soil layer or modern disturbed soil layer and intruding into the cultural layers of the late Shang Dynasty or directly intruding into the primary soil layer. Most of the burials of the Western Zhou Dynasty were distributed in the middle of the excavation zone, all of which were vertical earthen shaft pit burials in rectangular plan. The occupants of these burials were mostly in extended supine position, and the burial receptacles were usually single coffin or single coffin and single coffin chamber; no waist pits were found, and dog victims were found in three burials. The grave goods of the burials of the Western Zhou Dynasty were mainly pottery wares, the main types of which were li-cauldron, dou-stemmed bowl, jar and bu-jar; some burials also yielded bronze arrowheads, ornaments made of bone and shell, stone implements, jade pieces, cowries, etc. The burials of the Eastern Zhou Period were distributed in the middle to the west of the excavation zone, which were also vertical earthen shaft pit burials in rectangular plan. A few of the burials had animal victims. The grave goods of the burials of the Eastern Zhou Period were also mainly pottery wares, the main types of which were ding-tripod, dou-stemmed bowl, pot, pan-basin, yi-pourer, zhou-bowl, li-cauldron and jar; a few of the burials yielded bronze belt hooks, bronze mirrors, awls, bone objects, stone implements, etc. The burials of the Zhou Dynasty excavated in the Xiaosikong Locus South are not popular within the Yinxu Site area, which have academic values for the studies on the pattern and evolution of the Zhou Culture in the northern Henan and southern Hebei. The burials of the Western Zhou Dynasty recovered in this excavation were mainly that of the mid and late Western Zhou Dynasty, which further enriched the chronological sequence framework of the pottery wares of the Western Zhou Dynasty in Anyang area. The Eastern Zhou burials, especially that of the mid and late Spring-and-Autumn Period, have been seldom seen within the Yinxu Site; we believe that the in-depth comprehensive study on these data will give us more knowledge on the burial system and cultural pattern of the Eastern Zhou Period in Anyang and the entire northern Henan.